This research documented the findings on major considerations like property rights, role of institutions, water users’ interactions, value of water and propose strategies related to conservation and sustainable management of tank irrigation systems in South India. The research was undertaken in tank intensive districts of Tamil Nadu state, India. The claim over the benefits of a tank system was regulated among users by both legal and customary rights. Farmers attached higher social value over the tank irrigation system.Among various uses of tank, domestic, agricultural and LSD uses dominated the scenario. Women were empowered to participate in tank management by assuming various roles. Farmers were found to be the major competitors for tank water. The strategies proposed for sustainable management of tank system are strengthening the existing WUA,representation of women among the office bearers of WUA and rehabilitation of rainfed tanks.